Each year Finance minister present Budget in Indian Parliament. The First Schedule of Finance Act has 4 parts.
Part I – It specifies rates applicable for current Assessment Year.
Part II – It specifies the rates for Tax Deductible at Source (TDS) for current Financial Year.
Part III – It specifies rates for calculating income tax for deducting tax from income chargeable under the head of “Salaries” and computation of advance tax.
Part IV – It provides for rules of computing net agricultural income.
Tax rates are different for different individuals. Below are tax rates applicable for FY 201617 for different individuals.
For Individual / Hindu Undivided Family (HUF) / Association of Persons (AOP) / Body of Individuals (BOI) / Artificial Judicial Person  

Nil 
2. Where income is between ₹ 2,50,000 – 5,00,000/  10% of income that exceeds ₹ 2,50,000/ 
3. Where total income is between ₹ 5,00,000 and ₹ 10,00,000/  ₹ 25,000 + 20% of income between ₹ 5,00,000 – 10,00,000/ 
4. Where income exceeds ₹ 10,00,000/  ₹ 1,25,000 + 30% of income that exceeds ₹ 10,00,000 
For Individuals who are residents and of 60 years or above, but less than 80 years  

Nil 
2. Where income is between ₹ 3,00,000 – 5,00,000/  10% of income that exceeds ₹ 3,00,000/ 
3. Where total income is between ₹ 5,00,000 and ₹ 10,00,000/  ₹ 20,000 + 20% of income between ₹ 5,00,000 – 10,00,000/ 
4. Where income exceeds ₹ 10,00,000/  ₹ 1,20,000 + 30% of income that exceeds ₹ 10,00,000 
For Individuals who are residents and of 80 years or more  

Nil 
2. Where total income is between ₹ 5,00,000 and ₹ 10,00,000/  20% of income between ₹ 5,00,000 – 10,00,000/ 
3. Where income exceeds ₹ 10,00,000/  ₹ 1,00,000 + 30% of income that exceeds ₹ 10,00,000 
For Firms / LLP  

30% 
Local Authority  

30% 
Co – operative Society  

10% of total income 
2. Where income exceeds ₹ 10,000 but not ₹ 20,000  ₹ 1,000 + 20% of income above ₹ 10,000/ 
3. Where income exceeds ₹ 20,000  ₹ 3,000 + 30% of income above ₹ 30,000/ 
For Companies  

30% of total income 
2. For Foreign Companies  40% of total income 
These are tax rates only. Final Tax is subject to other conditions. Some other special Tax rates are –
 Long Term Capital Gain Tax, in general, is @ 20%. Under Section 115BB, tax rate of 30% is applicable for income from winnings
 Any lottery;
 Crossword puzzle;
 Race including Horse race;
 Card Game and any sort of other game;
 Gambling or betting of any form
There is also surcharge on high income. The rates of Surcharge for AY 201718 are
For Individual / HUF / AOP / BOI / Artificial Judicial Person / Co – Operative Societies / Local Authorities / Firms / LLPs  

12% of income tax computed by applying above rates 
Marginal Relief is available where income exceeds ₹ 1 Crore and Surcharge is Applicable. The amount of Surcharge should not be more than income that exceeds ₹ 1 Crore.  
Domestic Companies  

7% of income tax computed by applying above rates. 
2. Where income exceeds ₹ 10 Crores  12% of income tax computed by applying above rates. 
Marginal Relief is available. Surcharge at 7% cannot exceed the income above ₹ 1 Crore. Similarly, Surcharge at 12% cannot exceed the income above ₹ 10 Crores.  
Foreign Companies  

2% of income tax computed by applying above rates 
2. Where income exceeds ₹ 10 Crores  5% of income tax computed by applying above rates 
Marginal Relief is available. Surcharge at 2% cannot exceed the income above ₹ 1 Crore. Similarly, Surcharge at 5% cannot exceed the income above ₹ 10 Crores. 
To reduce the burden on small taxpayers, there is rebate under section 87A. Rebate of ₹ 5,000/ is allowed for small taxpayers whose income doesn’t exceed ₹ 5,00,000/.
“Education Cess” @ 2% and “Secondary and Higher Education Cess” @ 1% is applicable on Taxes calculated by applying at above rates. This Cess are collected by the government to meet its commitment of providing finance to education.
An Example for calculating tax
Illustration 1 – Mr. A who is resident in India has income of ₹ 4,50,000/ in FY 201617 i.e. AY 201718. His age is below 60 years. His Tax will be calculated as
His Income = ₹ 4,50,000/
Tax Slab of ₹ 2,50,000 – 5,00,000 is applicable @ 10%. Therefore, his basic tax = 10% of (4,50,000 – 2,50,000)
i.e., 20,000
Since, his income is below ₹ 5,00,000, he will get rebate of ₹ 5,000.
Therefore, his tax liability is of ₹ 20,000 – ₹ 5,000 = ₹ 15,000/
Illustration 2 – Mr. A who is resident in India has income of ₹ 6,50,000/ in FY 201617 i.e. AY 201718. His age is below 60 years. His Tax will be calculated as
His Income = ₹ 6,50,000/
Tax Slab of ₹ 5,00,000 – 10,00,000 is applicable @ 25,000 + 20% for income above ₹ 5,00,000. Therefore, his basic tax = 25,000 + 20% of (6,50,000 – 5,00,000)
i.e., ₹ 55,000/
Since, his income is above ₹ 5,00,000, he will not get rebate of ₹ 5,000. Therefore, his tax liability is of ₹ 55,000/
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