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439. Offences to be noncognizable

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(1) Notwithstanding anything in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, every offence under this Act except the offences referred to in sub-section (6) of section  shall be deemed to be non-cognizable within the meaning of the said Code.

(2) No court shall take cognizance of any offence under this Act which is alleged to have been committed by any company or any officer thereof, except on the complaint in writing of the Registrar, a shareholder of the company, or of a person authorised by the Central Government in that behalf:

Provided that the court may take cognizance of offences relating to issue and transfer of securities and non-payment of dividend, on a complaint in writing, by a person authorised by the Securities and Exchange Board of India:

Provided further that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to a prosecution by a company of any of its officers.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, where the complainant under sub-section (2) is the Registrar or a person authorised by the Central Government, the presence of such officer before the Court trying the offences shall not be necessary unless the court requires his personal attendance at the trial.

(4) The provisions of sub-section (2) shall not apply to any action taken by the liquidator of a company in respect of any offence alleged to have been committed in respect of any of the matters in Chapter XX or in any other provision of this Act relating to winding up of companies.

Explanation.—The liquidator of a company shall not be deemed to be an officer of the company within the meaning of sub-section (2).